Document Type : Articles


1 Faculty member and assistant professor of Imam Sadegh (AS) University - Sisters Campus

2 PhD student in Comparative Interpretation - Kowsar Islamic Sciences Education



This study seeks to answer the question of how Persian translations of the euphemisms of Nahj al-Balagheh have been presented using the second level of the Garcés translation evaluation model - the syntactic level of lexicography by a comparative, analytical and descriptive method. Garcés translation evaluation model: Garces suggests four levels for comparing similarities between the source text and the target text, which are: semantic-lexical level, second grammatical-lexical level, discourse-functional level andfourth stylistic-practical level. The second level of this theory includes literal translation, syntactic and grammatical change, implication, explanation or expansion of meaning, compensation. Garces argues that when literal translation goes beyond words, it becomes more and more difficult. He distinguishes between literal translation (word-for-word) and one-to-one translation.He believes that one-to-one translation is more common than literal translation. When literal translation becomes problematic due to differences in culture, it should be avoided. Evaluating the translation of these euphemisms in four well-known translations of literal and formal Persian translations by Faiz al-Islam, Jafari, Shahidi and Dashti, especially in the use of slang examples bespeaking decline of reason, stinginess and anger indicates that the cultural differences between the two languages of Persian and Arabic, finding equivalence at the lexical and grammatical level is one of the most important challenges in this area. Also, structural rhetoric of these euphemisms are lost in literal translation and the meaning intended by Amir al-Mu'minin Ali (AS) is hidden by relying on this type of translation and the verbal similarities with the Persian language limits and adequacy and acceptability is reduced


Abu Khader, S. (2013), "Idiomatic Expressions of Kindness in the Arabic and English Cultures: Contrastive Views on the Possibility of Translating the Expression of Death", Journal of the Association of Arab Universities of Literature, Association of Faculties of Arts, Association of Arab Universities, Vol. 10, Issue (1)
Abu Zulal, E. (2006), "Idiomatic Expressions between Theory and Practice", Egypt: Dar Al-Wafaa ledonya printing and publishing
Al-Albani, M. (1992), "a series of weak and fabricated hadiths and their bad impacts on the nation", Riyadh, Knowledge Library
Al-Anbari, M. (2004), "Al-Zahir fi Ma'ani al-Ma'ani fi al-Ma`un fi al-Ma`al` fi al-Ma`ani fi al-Ma`ani", edited by Hatim Salih Al-Damen, Damascus
Al-Askari, A. (1998), "Al-Furuq Al-Loghaviah", Tahghigh: Muhammad Ibrahim Salim, Egypt, Dar al-Alam va Thaqaf
 Al-Baalbaki, R. (1990), "Dictionary of Linguistic Terms", Beirut, Dar Al-Alam for Nationalities.
Al-Baghwi, Al-Hussein Ibn Mas'ud (1997), "Ma'alim Al-Tanzil", research: Muhammad Abdullah Al-Nimr, Riyadh, Daribat
Al-Bukhari, M.(2001), "Al-Jame Al-Musnad Al-Sahih Al-Muqtasar from the affairs of the Messenger of God (PBUH), his Sunnah and his days", edited by: Muhammad Zuhair bin Nasser Al-Nasser, Beirut: Dartuq Al-Najat.
 Al-Hayek, S. (1999), "Translations of the Holy Quran into the Words of the People and the Islamic Congregations", Editor: Muhammad Al-Arnaout, Al-Bayt University.
Al-Jawhari, I.(1956), "Al-Sahih: Taj al-Lingha and Al-Sahih Al-Arabiya", research: Ahmad Abdul Ghafoor, Cairo, Dar Al-Alam for the Muslims.
Al-Jorjani, A.(1983), "Book of Definitions", Beirut: Scientific Library.
Al-Qasimi, A. (1979), "Terminological interpretations and context and Arabic dictionary for them", Beirut: Arabic Language Magazine, No. 17.
Al-Sharbaji, A. (2002), "Tafsir Al-Bashir and Enlightenment of Al-Basair", Damascus, Dar Al-Bashaer
Al-Shartouni, S. (1982), "the closest sources in the Arabic and Shaward eras", Qom, the library of the great Ayatollah Al-Marashi Al-Najafi.
Al-Yazjai, I. (2006), "Nagat Al-Raed and Sharaa, contained in the synonym and Almtawarad", Beirut: Lebanon Library.
Al-Zubaidi, M. M., (2001), "The Crown of the Bride from the Jewel of the Dictionary", Research: Mustafa Hejazi, Al-Kuwait, The Arab Heritage Series.
Aqa Gul-Zadeh, F. (2006), "Critical discours analysis, formulation of the discours analysis in linguistics", Tehran, scientific and cultural.
Badakhshan, I. (2014). "Analysis of Euphemism in Persian", Tehran, Bimonthly of linguistic essays.
Bayati, L. (2010). "Structural study of euphemisms in Farsi", Tehran: Islamic Azad University.
Berman, A. (2010), "Translation and Letters and the Position of the Dimension", translated by Izz al-Din al-Khattabi, Beirut: Al-Munzima Al-Arabiya for translation
Dashti, M. (2000), "translation of Nahj al-Balaghah", Qom: Mashour Publication.
Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar (No date), "Dehkhoda Dictionary", Tehran, Sirus Publications.
Fairclough, N. (2000), "Critical Analysis of Discourse in Practice: Interpretation, Explanation and Analyst Position, Critical Discourse Analysis", translated into Farsi by Fatemeh Shayesteh Piran et al., Tehran: Center for Media Studies and Research.
Faiz al-Islam Isfahani, A. N. (1986), "translation and explanation of Nahj al-Balaghah", Tehran, Sepehr Printing House.
Farhadi, P. (2013), "A Critique and Evaluation of the Translation of Arabic Texts (Case Study: A Critique and Evaluation of Ghassan Kanfani's Translated Works in Three Sections: Stories", Narrations and Explanations (Arabic Thesis)
Garcés, C.. (1994). "A methodological proposal for the assessment of ranslated literary works: A case study". The Scarlet Letter
Haqqani, N. (2007), "Comments and Theories of Translation", Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication.
Har'amli, M. (1991), "Tafsil Vasael Shia Ela Tahsil Masael Al-Shia", Qom: Al-Bayt (AS) Foundation for the Revival of Heritage
House, J. (2009.), "A Introdution to linguistics and Translation", translated by Ali Bahrami, Tehran: Rahnma
Ibn Faris, A. (1979), "Scales of Language", edited by: Abd al-Salam Muhammad Harun, Egypt: Dar al-Fikr.
Ibn Manzur, M. (No date), Lisan Al Arab, Beirut, Arab Heritage House
Ibn Sayyidah, A, (1978), "Al-Mokhassas", Beirut: Dar Al-Fikr.
Ilyas, A.  (1998) "Old and Contemporary Translations of the Holy Quran", Translation of the Holy Qur'an, Proceedings of the International
Jafari Tabrizi, M. T. (2001), "translation of Nahj al-Balaghah", Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi.
Khavari, S. K. (2004), "from the word to the meaning: adaptation or literary translation", Foreign Languages Research, Vol. 18
Makarem Shirazi, N. (1994), Tafsir Nomoneh, Tehran, Islamic Library
Maroof, Y. (2018). "Translation technique: Theoretical and practical principles of translation from Arabic to Persian and from Persian to Arabic", Tehran: Samat Publications.
Mobaraki, M. Aminzadeh, S. (2013), "Theory of Translation Competence: The Scientific and Practical Basis of a Systematic Model of Translation Education, Quarterly Journal of Language Studies and Translation", Mashhad: Mashhad University.
Mohammadi, M. A. (2010), "Culture Interaction, Language Translation-Anthropological Approach: Educational and Research Applications in Intercultural and Linguistic Studies, Tehran, Quarterly Journal of Language and Translation Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3
Mostafavi, H. (1981), "Research in the Words of the Holy Quran", Tehran: Book Translation and Publishing Company
Mottaghizadeh, A., (2017). "Evaluation of translation of Persian literary texts into Arabic based on the model of Carmen Garcess ( For example Message of the Leader of the Revolution on the occasion of Hajj 2016)", Seyed Ala Naghizadeh, Tehran: Research on translation into Arabic language and literature.
Mustafa, I.(2008), "Al-Wasit Dictionary", Qom: Tebyan Cultural Institute
Newmark, B. (2006), "Al-Jame 'Fi Al-Tarjumeh", translated into Arabic by Hassan Ghazaleh, Beirut, Dar Al-Muktabah, Al-Hilal.
Newmark, P. (1981). "Approaches of Translation". England:Prentice Hall International.
Newmark, P. (1988). "A textbook of translation". New York: Prentice-Hall
Noghai, R. M., (1995) "The Applicability of Formal Equivalence to Translating Intrasentential Euphemisms in Surah II of The Holy Koran from Arabic into", (unpublished M.A. Dissertation), Yarmouk University
Noorabadi, Q, (2011). "Linguistic analysis of the Persian interpretation process and its place in Persian language teaching materials for non-Persian speakers", Isfahan: Isfahan University.
Payende, A. (1946), "Nahj al-Fasaha", Tehran: Javid Publication.
Payende, A. (1969), "Introduction to the translation of the Holy Quran", Maraein, Tehran
Roshanfekr, K., (2013), "The Challenges of Translatability of Cultural Elements in Najib Mahfouz's novel Al-Las and Al-Kalab, Comparison of two translations based on the Newmark theoretical framework:, Journal of Translation Studies in Arabic Language and Literature, Vol. 8.
seyedi, S. H. (2011), "Aesthetics of Quranic verses", Qom: Qom Seminary Islamic Propaganda Office.
Shahidi, S. J. (1991), "translation of Nahj al-Balagheh", Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company.
Shakir, (1998) "A. "Sound and Sight Effects as Integral Elements to the Meaning of Certain Context –Bound Koranic Lexical Items: Problems of Non-Equivalence in Translation",Translation of the Holy Qur'an, Proceedings
Shunnaq, (1998) "Abdullah,Problems in Translating Arabic Texts into English", Issues in Translation, (edited by Shunnaq, A., Dollerup, C., and Saraireh, M.), Irbid: Deanship of Scientific Research, National University and   Jordanian Translators' Association.
Sini, M. et. al (1996), "The Contextual Dictionary of Idioms", Beirut: Lebanon Library.
Siyahi, S. et al. (2016), "The Method of Clarification and Explanation in the Translation of the Qur'an (A Case Study of the Translation of Faiz al-Islam)", Bimonthly Quarterly of Translation Studies in Arabic Language and Literature, p.6. Vol. 14
Tabarsi, F. (No date), "Majma 'al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an: Tehran, Dar al-Kotob al-Islamiyyah.
Tahmasebi, A. Samadi V. (2016), "Literary translation method based on the translation of Sahebeh Al-Jalaleh play", Tehran, Jihad University Organization Publications.
Tajli, G. (1990), "The Practical Value of Translation Theory", Translation and Adaptation by Vilen Komisarov, Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Shiraz University, Vol.3.