Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Jurisprudence and Law, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Meybod University



One of the important topics in this discussion is that in linguistics, markedness is derived from the Prague school. Markedness has begun in the field of phonology; However, in linguistic studies, it expanded to other fields such as word construction, syntax and semantics, and has been used in different general theoretical frameworks, such as systemic functional linguistics and generative linguistics. According to Palmer, whenever the semantic components of a word express a general concept associated with the attribute of "generality," that word will be semantically an "unmarked" word; But if a word has specific and unique units and components, so that it can be considered as a subset of the "unmarked" theme, here, the attribute of "markedness" can be considered for such words. Types of markedness are semantic, formal and categorical. Semantic markedness form the properties of the meaning of words and determine their commonalities and differences. A study of Nahj al-Balagheh, in which a multitude of various words has been used in various fields, can reveal many aspects of the intentions of the speaker of this valuable work. The concept of place and especially nature is one of the most widely used words in Nahj al-Balagheh; The abundance of various words in the field of nature in Nahj al-Balagheh shows its importance n the belief of Imam Ali (AS). In this study, the aim was discovering and explaining the markedness aspects of the words based on a descriptive-analytical method. It was found that, in the words of Imam Ali (AS), the markedness words of nature in the axes of succession and companionship were used equally and each has a unique role in challenging the semantic purpose.


Nahj al-Balagheh, (2000), Translator: Mohammad Dashti, Qom: Iran
Ibn Faris, A., (1983), "Dictionary of Comparative Language", Qom: Islamic Media School.
Ibn Manzoor, M., (1993), "Arabic language", Beirut: Dar al-Sadr Baghdadi. Abdul Qadir, (1998), "The Treasury of Literature and the Lip of the Arabic Language", Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Almiya.
Palmer, F. R., (1987), "A New Look at Semantics", translated by Kourosh Safavid, Tehran: Med Book
Johari, I., (1997) "Al-Sahah", Beirut: Dar al-Alam for the Malays.
Hosseini Deilami Tonekaboni, M., (2011). Tahfeh Hakim, Qom: Nor Vahei.
Zahedi, K., (2008), "Gender and Gender in the Holy Quran", Strategic Studies of Women, No. 42
Searle, J., (2002), "Intentionally", translated by Amir Diwani, in Philosophy of the Soul, Tehran: Soroush
Sayoti, A., (1983). "Durr al-Mansopur  fi Tafsir Be Al-Ma'sour", Beirut: Dar al-FikrShertouni, S, (1984), "the closest sources in the eloquent Arabic and evidence, Dar al-Aswa
Safi Puri Shirazi, A., (2009). "End of Arb in the language of the Arabs". Tehran: University of Tehran
Farahidi, K., (1988). "Kitab al-Ain", Qom: Hijrat Publishing.
Ghaemi, M.; Abdi, Salahuddin; A. ; Ahmadi, E., (2018). " The Study of Semantic Components of the Quranic Word “Ḥamim” Based on the Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Relations ", Arabic Literature, Vol. 10, No. 2. Doi: 10.22059/JALIT.2018.204671.611449
Heravi, M., (2008), "Dictionary of Natural Medicine", Qom: Jalaluddin.