Document Type : Articles


1 Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Khomein Branch, Khomein, Iran

2 PhD Student in General Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Khomein Branch, Khomein, Iran



Learning analysis is performed using meta-discourse markers. Learning markers are, in fact, linguistic forms that are considered as important rhetorical tools and ensure interaction in texts. Different models for learning analysis are presented. the Highland pattern is one of the most common and popular. For the first time, Highland has defined and categorized all aspects of the interaction between the author of the text and the wisdom of the text, as well as the author of the text and the reader of the text, using the term learning, and claims that the researcher can go beyond text and discourse and also analyze the text as a social action. Learning is used as a concept in discourse analysis and is used in the interaction between authors and their text between writer and reader. Overall, learning, as an important tool in facilitating communication, helps the writer to communicate with drivers and express his personal findings, as propositions place their relevant sentences or phrases in creating a coherent discourse in the field of text structure. The present article examines the epistemological indicators in socio-political talk shows on the Islamic Republic of Iran TV channels from the perspective of critical discourse based on the views of Highland (2005) and Fairclough (2001). In this research, 20 programs of socio-political talk show of channels 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected, studied and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively in a numerical manner using purposive sampling. The variables studied in this study include the gender of the experts, whether the programs are live or recorded, the number of experts in the program, whether they are academics or non-academics to determine the results showed that the distribution of epistemological elements, certainty, skepticism and attitude In socio-political roundtable programs on the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, it varies according to the gender of the experts, whether the program is live or recorded, whether the experts are academic or non-academic, or the presence of one or more experts in the program. The type of application of epistemological tools in the discourse of experts can be justified.


Abdi, R. (2009), "Applying Learning Strategies in Persian and English Scientific-Research Articles; Studying the Genre Norms of Discourse Society in Persian Articles", Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 5, Ninth Consecutive, pp. 163-180.
Aghagolzadeh, F. (2006), "Analysis, Comparison of Criticism, Analysis of Theology and Critical Discourse Analysis". PhD Thesis in General Linguistics, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University.
Aghagolzadeh, F. (2008) "Analysis of Critical Media Discourse, Opportunities and Challenges", Iranian Journal of Social Sciences, No. 8.
Bahrampour, S.(1999). "An Introduction to Discourse Analysis Book of Discourse and Discourse Analysis Articles ", Edited by: Mohammad Reza Tajik, Publications: Farhang Goftman.
Bainbridge, E.O. (1994). "Sex Difference; in Asher R.A. and J.M".
Crystal, D. (1987). "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language", 2th edition, Cambridge University Press.
Fairclough, N. (1996) ,"Language and power", Longman Group UK Limited
Fairclough, N. (2001). "Analysing Discourse". London: Routledge.
Flowerdew (Ed.). "Academic Discourse". London: Longman. Pp. 115- 30.
Hyland, K. & P. Tse (2004). "Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal" . Applied Linguistics.XXV. 2. Pp. 156- 177.
Hyland, K. (1998). "Hedging in Scientific Research Articles". Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hyland, K. (2002). "Activity Analysis and Evaluation: Reporting Practices in Academic Writing, in J".
Hyland, K. (2005). "Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing". London: Continuum.
Jorgensen, M. Louise, P., (2010), "Theory and Method in Discourse", translated by Hadi Tahlil Jalili, Tehran, Ney.
Jorgenson, M. & Phillips, L. (2002). "Discourse Analysis as Theory and Methods", SAGE Publications, Ltd.
Kargar, M. (2013), "Analysis of Iranian Linguistic Textbook Critique Articles Based on Highland Learning Model", Journal of Linguistic Research, Vol. 5, pp. 37-52.
Khorramshahi, B. (2007), "Book Criticism", Tehran: Book House Institute.
Lakoff, R. (1975). "Language and Women’s Place". New York: Harper & Row.
McMillan, J., Clifton, R., Mcgrath, D., & Gale, W.S. (1977). “Women’s language: uncertainty or interpersonal sensitivity and emotionality? ”. Sex Roles 3, 545-559.
Miranda, E. O. y. (1996). "On book reviewing". Journal of Educational Thought, XXX, 2, 191-202.
Modaresi, Y. (1989), "An Introduction to the Sociology of Language", Tehran: Institute of Cultural Studies and Research.
Pazhakh, A., Halabisaz, B., S., (2006) "Hedges in Persian/English", Master’s theses: acontrastive study
Razavi, M. (2012), "Hadnamaei in Persian Language", Proceedings of the 8th Iranian Linguistics Conference, Vol. 1, Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University Press, pp. 314-305.
Soltani, S. (2005), "Power, Discourse and Language: Mechanisms of Power Flow in the Islamic Republic of Iran", Tehran, Ney.
Suarez Tejerina, L. & I. M. (2008). "The Rhetorical Structure of Literary Academic Book Reviews: An English-Spanish Cross-linguistic Approach", U. Connor, E. Nagelhout & W. Rozycki (Eds.). Contrastive Rhetoric: Reaching to Intercultural Rhetoric. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Pp. 147- 168.
Tajer, P.; Jokar Abdul Rasool; F., Mostafa and Khormaei, A. (2019), "Analysis of the application of Highland learning model in automatic summary citation", Library and Information Science, Vol. 22, Nom. 3.
Taremi, T.; Taki, G. Yousefian, P. (2018), "Gender in Persian-language scientific articles", Journal of Linguistic Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, 18 in order.