A Review of Gentte's Zero Focus by Examining Bozorg Alavi's Short Stories. [In Persian]
Our life is intertwined with narratives, or rather life itself is a narrative. All groups and classes of human being have their own narratives; The importance of narration has attracted the attention of researchers. This knowledge, which emerged in the middle of the twentieth century, has gone through three periods of "pre-structuralism, structuralism and post-structuralism" since its inception, and in each period, its method of research has undergone fundamental changes. The main subject of the present study is related to the second period of narrative-research, that is, structuralist narrative research. Gerard Genette from France is one of the great theorists in this field. He was the one who transformed the study of perspective, introducing the concept of "focalization" to show that "one who sees" is not necessarily the same as "one who speaks." "Focus" is a term that Gerard Genette first chose instead of "perspective" to distinguish the narrator from the narrator. He has divided the focus into three types, zero, internal and external, and has elaborated on them. In this study, the three types of foci in Alavi's stories have been studied by an analytical-descriptive manner, and a new look at genette's zero focus has been presented by criticizing the genette's method in dividing the types of foci. The results show that genette's criterion in this classification is heterogeneous and focalist and the depth of focus are intertwined; Also, his zero focus is in fact a combination of two external and internal focuses and can not be considered a new type. On the other hand, sometimes in the story, there are reports that do not fit into any of Genette's divisions; Like when the narrator interrupts the story report and provides information to the audience in various fields such as scientific information. In our opinion, this type of report should be considered as devoid of focus and the title of zero focus should be generalized to them.
Alavi, B., (2006) Gilehmard, 3th edition, Tehran: Negah.
Alavi, B., (2008), "Suitcase", 7th edition, Tehran: Negah.
Barthes, R., (2013), "An Introduction to Structural Analysis of Narratives", translated by Mohammad Ragheb, 2th edition, Tehran: New Event.
Berger, A., (2001), "Narrative in Popular Culture, Media and Everyday Life", translated by Mohammad Reza Liravi, Tehran: Soroush.
Beyad, M.; Nemati, F. (2005), "Focusing on Narration", Literary Research, No. 7, pp. 53-37.
Falah, G.; Azarnava, L., (2013), "Focal spectra in the tragedy of Rostam and Esfandiar", Persian Language and Literature, Vol. 1 (4), pp. 76-47.
Farhangi, S.; Kazempour, Z., (2014), "The Focus of narration in the story of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) based on the view of Genett", Literary and Rhetorical Research, Vol. 2 (8), pp. 19-9.
Genette, G., (2013), "Imagination and Expression", translated by Allashokr Asadollahi Tajrq, Tehran: Sokhan.
Ghasemipour, G., (2012), "Formalism and Structuralism of Literature", Ahvaz: Chamran University.
Hasanpour Alashti, H.; Mansour Lekourj, S., (2008), "Socio-political-thematic themes of the novel Alavi's Big Eyes", Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 170-157.
Lintvelt, J., (2011), "A Treatise on the Typology of Point-of-View Narrative", translated by Ali Abbasi and Nusrat Hejazi, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
Lodge, D., (2013), "Introduction to the grammar of the story", compiled by Abolfazl Hori, essays on the theory of narrative and narratology, Tehran: Book House, pp. 85-122.
lubbock, P., (1965), "The craft of fiction", Londres, Jonatan Cape, (1 ed.1921).
Makarik, I., (2006), "Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theories", translated by Mohammad Nabavi and Mehran Mohajer, second edition, Tehran: Ageh.
Sarfi, M. R., (2007), "Narrative Focus in Masnavi", Literary Research, No. 16, pp. 159-137.
Tolan, M.. G, (2014), "A Critical and Linguistic Introduction to Narration", translated by Abolfazl Houri, Tehran: Farabi Cinema Foundation.
Tyson, L., (2008), "Contemporary Critical Theories". Translated by Maziar Hosseinzadeh and Fatemeh Hosseini, Tehran: Today's Look.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Principles of Transparency
All submitted articles are evaluated at the submission to meet the and principles of Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics. The matched articles will gone under a double-blinded peer-review process by at least 3 reviewers (expert in the field who are not part of the journal’s editorial staff) who are selected by the Editorial Board members according to their field specialties. The Editorial Board members have the final responsibility to select the articles.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguisticsis under the scientific control of whose members are recognized experts in the subject areas included within the journal’s scope. Some executive roles of the Editorial Board members are delegated to the Editor-in-Chief who is well-known in the journal’s scope.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is under the scientific supervision of the whose members are all experts with high number of publications in their field.
There are No Fees or Charges at all for submission, reviewing and publishing processes in Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics follows the .
This open-access journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits Share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and Adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) under the Attribution terms.
Publisher and editors of Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics are reasonable to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, among others. In doing so, Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics follows in dealing with allegations.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is owned by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College, Iran, and is managed and published by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College.
All Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics Editorial Board members and the Editor-in-Chief submitted articles are gone under the same reviewing process as the other authors gone. In the cases that a reviewer suspects undisclosed conflict of interest in a submitted manuscript or a reader suspects undisclosed conflict of interest in a published article (all authors are filling the at the submission time) Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics will follow .
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is financially supported completely by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College, Iran, and has no other sources for earning funds. Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics accepts No advertisements in the site or even as a report article.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is published 2 issues per year. All the content from the beginning to the end will be available for ever on Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics exclusive website. Also Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is included at EBSCOand has the plan to enter to Scopus and Thomson-Reuters databases.