A Review of Language Teachers’ Identity Development: A Focus on Cultural Identity Theories. [In English]
Teacher identity has been considered among the most influential key factors in the realm of teacher education. Studies on teacher identity help teacher educators to find new and conducive approaches to develop teacher identity in different contexts. This study is a theoretical review aiming to accentuate the recent underlying concepts of teacher identity, language teacher identity, and language teacher cultural identity. To those ends, we scrutinize the related issues such as the different perspectives about identity; key concepts in teacher identity including teacher professional identity, teacher motivation and identity, teacher emotion and identity, and narratives and teacher identity along with non-native English language teacher identify construction and reflexivity and language teacher identity. Moreover, a review of the related theories about cultural identity has been done and presented to address the most referred theories of cultural identity. Finally, some concluding remarks about the theoretical underpinnings of language teacher cultural identity have been discussed.
Bandura, A. (1997). "Self-effcacy: The exercise of control",. New York: Freeman.
Baron-Cohen, S. (2003). "The Essential Difference: Men, Women and the Extreme Male Brain", London: Allen Lane.
Beck, U. (1994). "Ecological Enlightenment: essays on the politics of the risk society", Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Beijaard, D., Meijer, P. C., & Verloop, N. (2004). "Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity", Teaching and Teacher Education, No. 20(2), pp.107–128.
Ben Said, S. & Shegar, C. (2014). "Compliance, negotiation, and resistance in teachers’ spatial construction of identit",. In S. Ben Said & L. J. Zhang (Eds.), Language Teachers and Teaching: Global Perspectives, Local Initiatives (pp. 127-149). New York: Routledge.
Block, D. (2007). "Second language identities", London: Continuum.
Britzman, D. P. (2003). "Practice makes practice: A critical study of learning to teach", 2th Edition. New York: State University of New York Press.
Bruner, J. (1994). "Life as narrative. Social Research", No. 54 (1), pp. 691–710.
Bucholtz, M. (2003). "Sociolinguistic nostalgia and authentification of identity", Journal of Sociolinguistics, No. 7(3), pp. 398–416.
Butler, R. (2014). "What teachers want to achieve and why it matters: An achievement goal approach to teacher motivation", In P. W. Richardson, S. A. Karabenick, & H. M. G. Watt (Eds.), Teacher motivation: Theory and practice (pp. 20–35). New York: Routledge.
Canagarajah, S. (2006). "Constructing a diaspora identity in English: The case of Sri Lankan Tamils", In J. Brutt-Griffler & C. E. Davis (Eds.), English and Ethnicity (pp. 191-216). London: Palgrave.
Chen, Y., & Lin, H. (2016, July 07). "Cultural Identities. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication", Ed. Retrieved 6 Sep. 2018, from http://communication.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228613-e-20.
Collier, M. J. (1998). "Researching cultural identity: Reconciling interpretive and postcolonial perspectives", Communication and identity across cultures, No. 21, pp. 122-147.
Davies, A. (1991). "The Native Speaker in Applied Linguistics", Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Davies, B., and R. Harré. (1990). "Positioning: The discursive production of selves", Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, No. 20 (1), pp. 43–63.
Davis, C. E. (2006). "Introduction", In J. Brutt-Griffler and C. E. Davis (Eds), English and Ethnicity (pp. 1-15). London: Palgrave.
Day, C. (2018). "Professional Identity Matters: Agency, Emotions, and Resilience", In P. A. Schutz, J., Hong & D. C. Francis (Eds.), Research on Teacher Identity (pp. 61-70). Springer, Cham.
De Costa, P. (2014). "Tracing reflexivity through a narrative and identity lens", In Cheung, Y. L., Said, S. B., & Park, K. (Eds.), Advances and current trends in language teacher identity research (pp. 135-147). New York: Routledge.
De Fina, A. (2015). "Narrative and identities", In A. De Fina & A. Georgakopoulou (Eds.), The handbook of narrative analysis (pp. 351-368). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
De Fina, A., & Georgakopoulou, A. (2012). "Analyzing narrative: Discourse and sociolinguistic perspectives", London: Cambridge University Press.
De Fina, A., D. Schiffrin, and M. Bamberg. (2006). "Discourse and Identity", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Delanty, G. (2003) "Community", London: Routledge.
Dewey, J. (1933). "How We Think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking in the educative process", New York: D.C. Heath.
Duff, P. A. (2012). "Identity, agency, and second language acquisition", In A. Mackey & S. M. Gass (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 410–426). London, England: Routledge.
Edge, J. (2011). "The Reflexive Teacher Educator in TESOL: Roots and Wings", New York: Routledge.
Edwards, E., & Burns, A. (2016). "Language teacher–researcher identity negotiation: An ecological perspective", TESOL Quarterly, No. 50(3), pp. 735-745.
Elliot, A. (2002). "Beck’s Sociology of Risk: a critical assessment", Sociology, No. 36(2), pp. 293-315.
Garfinkel, H. (1984). "Studies in Ethnomethodology", Cambridge and Oxford: Polity Press with Blackwell Publishers.
Gee, J. P. (2001). "Identity as an analytic lens for research in education", Review of Research in Education, No. 25(1), pp.99-125.
Giddens, A. (1991). "Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age",. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Goodson, I. F. (1992). "Sponsoring the teacher’s voice: Teachers’ lives and teacher development", In A. Hargreaves, & M. G. Fullan (Eds.), Understanding teacher development (pp. 110–121). New York: Teachers College Press.
Grandey, A. A., & Gabriel, A. S. (2015). "Emotional labor at a crossroads: Where do we go from here?" Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, No. 2(1), pp. 323–349.
Gregg, G. (2011). "Identity in life narratives", Narrative Inquiry, No. 21(2), pp. 318–328.
Grossberg, L. (1992). "Is there a fan in the house?", The affective sensibility of fandom. London: Routledge.
Harding, J., & Pribram, E. D. (2004). "Losing our cool?", Following Williams and Grossberg on emotions. Cultural Studies, No.18(6), pp. 863–883.
Holliday, A. (2008). "Standards of English and politics of inclusion", Language Teaching, No. 41, pp.119-130.
Holmes, M. (2010). "The Emotionalization of Reflexivity", Sociology, No. 44(1), pp. 139-154.
Imahori, T. T., & Cupach, W. R. (2005). "Identity management theory: Facework in intercultural relationships", In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 195–210). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Jackson, R. L. (2002). "Cultural contracts theory: Toward an understanding of identity negotiation", Communication Quarterly, No. 50(3-4), pp. 359-367.
Kubanyiova, M., & Crookes, G. (2016). "Re-visioning the roles, tasks, and contribution of language teachers in the multilingual era of language education research and practice", The Modern Language Journal, No. 100(supplement), pp. 117-118.
Kubota, R. (2002). "(Un)raveling racism in a nice field like TESOL", TESOL Quarterly, No. pp.36 ,84-92.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2014). "Afterword: Rethinking global perspectives and local initiatives in language teaching", In S. Ben Said and L. J. Zhang (Eds), Language Teachers and Teaching: Global Perspectives, Local Initiatives (pp. 317 – 323). New York: Routledge.
Lasky, S. (2005). "A sociocultural approach to understanding teacher identity, agency and professional vulnerability in a context of secondary school reform", Teaching and Teacher Education, No. 21(8), pp. 899-916.
Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meihami, H., & Salīte, I. (2019). "EFL Teachers’ Cultural Identity Development through Participating in Cultural Negotiation: Probing EFL Students’ Perspectives", Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, No. 21(1), pp.115-127.
Miller, J. (2009). "Teacher identity", In A. Burns and J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 172–181). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Morgan, B. (2004). "Teacher identity as pedagogy: Towards a field- internal conceptualization in bilingual and second language education", International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, No. 7, pp.172 -188.
Norton, B. (2013). "Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation", London: Multilingual matters.
Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2011). "Identity, language learning, and social change", Language Teaching, No. 44(4), pp. 412-446.
Olsen, B., & Buchanan, R. (2017). "Everyone wants you to do everything: investigating the professional identity development of teacher educators", Teacher Education Quarterly, No. 44(1), pp. 9-34.
Orbe, M. P. (1998). "An outsider within perspective to organizational communication: Explicating the communicative practices of co-cultural group members", Management Communication Quarterly, No. 12(2), pp. 230-279.
Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). "Self, self-concept, and identity", In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 60–104). New York: The Guilford Press.
Park, G. (2012). "I am never afraid of being recognized as an NNES: One teacher’s journey in claiming and embracing her nonnative-speaker identity", TESOL Quarterly, No. 46(1), pp.127–151.
Pennington, M. C. (2015). "Teacher identity in TESOL: A frames perspective. In Advances and current trends in language teacher identity research", (pp. 38-52). Routledge.
Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (2016). "Teacher identity in language teaching: Integrating personal, contextual, and professional factors", RELC journal, No. 47(1), pp. 5-23.
Rashidi, N., & Meihami, H. (2017). "Addressing cultural identity through negotiation: Analysis of student-teacher-authored narratives", Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, No.19(2), pp. 21-35.
Rashidi, N., & Meihami, H. (2019). "The role of negotiation about cultural issues on the ESP teachers’ cultural identity development: A narrative inquiry", XLinguae, No.12(2), pp. 111-129
Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. (2018). "Teacher Professional Identity and Career Motivation: A Lifespan Perspective", In P. A. Schutz, J., Hong & D. C. Francis (Eds.), Research on Teacher Identity (pp. 37-48). Springer, Cham.
Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. G. (2006). "Who chooses teaching and why? Profling characteristics and motivations across three Australian Universities", Asia-Pacifc Journal of Teacher Education, No. 34(1), pp. 27–56.
Roth, G. (2014). "Antecedents and outcomes of teachers’ autonomous motivation: A self-determination theory analysis", In P. W. Richardson, S. A. Karabenick, & H. M. G. Watt (Eds.), "Teacher motivation: Theory and practice", (pp. 36–51). New York: Routledge.
Sayer, P. (2012). "Ambiguities and Tensions in English Language Teaching: Portraits of EFL Teachers as Legitimate Speakers", New York: Routledge.
Schutz, P. A., & Zembylas, M. (2009). "Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers’ lives", New York: Springer.
Smart, B. (1999). "Facing modernity", London: Sage.
Spradley, J. (1979). "The ethnographic interview", New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Strauss, A. L. (1978). "Negotiations: Varieties, contexts, processes, and social order", San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Tao, J. T., & Gao, X. A. (2018). "Identity constructions of ESP teachers in a Chinese university", English for Specific Purposes, No. 49(1), pp. 1-13.
Ting-Toomey, S. (2005). "Identity negotiation theory: Crossing cultural boundaries", In W. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 211–233). Thousand Oaks,CA: SAGE.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). "Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct", Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805.
Tsui, A. (2007). "Complexities of identity formation: A narrative inquiry of an EFL teacher", TESOL Quarterly, No. 41(4), pp. 657-680.
van Lier, L. (2011). "Language learning: An ecological–semiotic approach", In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 383–394). New York, NY: Routledge.
Varghese, M., Morgan, B., Johnston, B., & Johnson, K. A. (2005). "Theorizing language teacher identity: Three perspectives and beyond", Journal of language, Identity, and Education, No. 4(1), pp. 21-44.
Watt, H. M. G., & Richardson, P. W. (2008). "Motivations, perceptions, and aspirations concerning teaching as a career for different types of beginning teachers", Learning and Instruction, No.18(5), pp. 408–428.
Watt, H. M. G., & Richardson, P. W. (2010, April). "When the rubber hits the road’: Changing motivations for teacher subtypes in the frst 5 years of teaching", Paper presented at the AERA Annual Conference, Denver, CO, April 30 – May 4, 2010.
Weedon, C. (1997). "Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory 2nd edn", Oxford: Blackwell.
Wenger, E. (1998). "Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity", Cambridge university press.
Wertsch, J. (1991). "Voices of mind: A sociocultural approach to mediated action", Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Williams, J. (2010). "Constructing a new professional identity: Career change into teaching", Teaching and Teacher Education, No. 26(3), pp. 639-647.
Wróbel, M. (2013). "Can empathy lead to emotional exhaustion in teachers? The mediating role of emotional labor", International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, No. 26(4), pp. 581-592.
Xu, H. (2012). "Imagined community falling apart: A case study on the transformation of professional identities of novice ESOL teachers in China", Tesol Quarterly, No. 46(3), pp. 568-578.
Yagi, N., & Kleinberg, J. (2011). "Boundary work: An interpretive ethnographic perspective on negotiating and leveraging cross-cultural identity", Journal of International Business Studies, No. 42(5), pp. 629-653.
Zeichner, K., & Gore, J. (1990). "Teacher socialization", In W. R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 329-348). New York: Macmillan.
Zeichner, K.M. & Liston, D.P. (1996). "Reflective Teaching: an introduction",. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zembylas, M. (2014). "The place of emotion in teacher reflection: Elias, Foucault and ‘critical emotional reflexivity’",. Power and Education, No. 6(2), pp. 210-222.
Zhang, L., & Zhang, D. (2015). "Identity matters: An ethnography of two non-native English-Speaking teachers (NNESTS) struggling for legitimate professional participation", In Cheung, Y. L., Said, S. B., & Park, K. (Eds.), Advances and current trends in language teacher identity research (pp. 116-132). New York: Routledge.
Zuengler, J., & Miller, E. R. (2006). "Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives: Two parallel SLA worlds?", TESOL Quarterly, No. 40(1), pp. 35-58.
Fakhr-Rohani, M. R. (2019). “Teaching Islamic Literature in English as a Background for Introducing Iranian Students to a Variety of Literatures in English”. Journal of Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics, (ISSN: 2645-3428), Vol. 2 (1), pp. 37-40.
Principles of Transparency
All submitted articles are evaluated at the submission to meet the and principles of Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics. The matched articles will gone under a double-blinded peer-review process by at least 3 reviewers (expert in the field who are not part of the journal’s editorial staff) who are selected by the Editorial Board members according to their field specialties. The Editorial Board members have the final responsibility to select the articles.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguisticsis under the scientific control of whose members are recognized experts in the subject areas included within the journal’s scope. Some executive roles of the Editorial Board members are delegated to the Editor-in-Chief who is well-known in the journal’s scope.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is under the scientific supervision of the whose members are all experts with high number of publications in their field.
There are No Fees or Charges at all for submission, reviewing and publishing processes in Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics follows the .
This open-access journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits Share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and Adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) under the Attribution terms.
Publisher and editors of Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics are reasonable to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication, among others. In doing so, Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics follows in dealing with allegations.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is owned by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College, Iran, and is managed and published by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College.
All Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics Editorial Board members and the Editor-in-Chief submitted articles are gone under the same reviewing process as the other authors gone. In the cases that a reviewer suspects undisclosed conflict of interest in a submitted manuscript or a reader suspects undisclosed conflict of interest in a published article (all authors are filling the at the submission time) Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics will follow .
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is financially supported completely by International E-Research Foundation (IERF) & Osool Al-Dīn College, Iran, and has no other sources for earning funds. Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics accepts No advertisements in the site or even as a report article.
Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is published 2 issues per year. All the content from the beginning to the end will be available for ever on Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics exclusive website. Also Language Teaching, Literature & Linguistics is included at EBSCOand has the plan to enter to Scopus and Thomson-Reuters databases.